Regional bans on wild-bird trade modify invasion risks at a global scale

Wildlife trade is currently the most important and increasing source of vertebrate invasive species. However, exhaustive analyses of potential side effects of trade regulations on this pathway of introduction are lacking. We addressed this by combining environmental niche models and global trade data on parrots (Psittaciformes), one of the most widely traded and worldwide invasive taxa. We used the wild bird trade bans of United States (1992) and Europe (2005) as case-studies. Results showed that regional bans can generate geographic redirections in trade, with important consequences on worldwide invasion risk. While the amount of parrots traded internationally remained largely constant, changes in trade destination occurred. Consequently, the world surface predicted at risk of parrot invasions increased with successive bans. Of concern, a redirection of trade toward developing countries was observed. Attention should be paid on the mismatch between the global requirements of invasion management and the regional scales governing trade regulations.