The evolutionary diversity of barnacles, with an updated classification of fossil and living forms

We present a comprehensive revision and synthesis of the higher-level classification of the barnacles (Crustacea: Thecostraca) to the genus level and including both extant and fossils forms. We provide estimates of the number of species in each group. Our classification scheme has been updated based on insights from recent phylogenetic studies and attempts to adjust the higher-level classifications to represent evolutionary lineages better, while documenting the evolutionary diversity of the barnacles. Except where specifically noted, recognized taxa down to family are argued to be monophyletic from molecular analysis and/or morphological data. Our resulting classification divides the Thecostraca into the subclasses Facetotecta, Ascothoracida and Cirripedia. The whole class now contains 14 orders, 65 families and 367 genera. We estimate that barnacles consist of 2116 species. The taxonomy is accompanied by a discussion of major morphological events in barnacle evolution and justifications for the various rearrangements we propose.