New frontiers in bird migration research

Bird migrations are impressive behavioral phenomena, representing complex spatiotemporal strategies to balance costs of living while maximizing fitness. The field of bird migration research has made great strides over the past decades, yet fundamental gaps remain. Technologies have sparked a transformation in the study of bird migration research by revealing remarkable insights into the underlying behavioral, cognitive, physiological and evolutionary mechanisms of these diverse journeys. Here, we aim to encourage broad discussions and promote future studies by highlighting research fields that are characterized by major knowledge gaps or conflicting evidence, namely the fields of navigation, social learning, individual development, energetics and conservation. We approach each topic by summarizing the current state of knowledge and provide a future outlook of ideas and state-of-the-art methods to further advance the field. Integrating knowledge across these disciplines will allow us to understand the adaptive abilities of different species and to develop effective conservation strategies in a rapidly changing world.