Determinants of compliance with hunting regulations under Joint Forest Management in Tanzania

We evaluated the effect of Joint Forest Management (JFM) on the number of bushmeat hunters in a forest reserve in the Udzungwa Mountains of Tanzania and tested whether their response to regulations was best characterized by instrumental or normative explanations. A multinomial model based on instrumental proxies revealed that hunters were characterized by significantly lower household asset value, agricultural area cultivated and education level compared to non-hunters. Stronger explanation was revealed by a model based on normative proxies with hunters being characterized by dissatisfaction with, and perceiving low benefits from JFM, less participation in village meetings and JFM activities and by distrusting the financial management of JFM funds. No model was able to differentiate clearly between individuals that stopped or continued hunting. Focus group discussions with hunters, however, supported the quantitative results and provided the missing clues to differentiate between these groups. In combination the results suggest that continued hunting is motivated primarily by normative reasoning whereas compliance is explained by instrumental considerations. This suggests that a number of fundamental changes are required of JFM in order to ensure hunters' compliance and thereby conserve the unique biodiversity of this component of the Eastern Afromontane biodiversity hotspot.