Opposing demographic histories reveal rapid evolution in grebes (Aves: Podicipedidae)

Grebes (Aves: Podicipedidae) are a threatened family containing species that vary widely in demography. Podicipedidae includes several species that are either rare and confined to a single lake basin, or abundantly distributed across several continents. The most speciose genus, Podiceps, particularly the eared grebe lineage, best reflects this curious demographic pattern by representing the most abundant of extant grebes, several critically endangered species, and a recently extinct species. Here, we obtained genetic data from 3 mitochondrial markers to make phylogenetic and population genetic inferences about the eared grebe clade. Using DNA from tissue, feather, skin, and toe pads, our sampling encompassed all species and subspecies, including the extinct Colombian Grebe (Podiceps andinus) and migratory and resident populations of the North American Black-necked Grebe (P. nigricollis californicus). Bayesian inference yielded novel insights into the dynamics of this group, particularly the recent ecological isolation and incipient speciation of the Colombian and Junin (P. taczanowskii) grebes, as determined from limited genetic divergence and rapid evolution of plumage color and bill shape (elongation, deepening of the culmen). DNA barcode and cytochrome b distances supported these inferences. Population genetic and divergence time analyses further revealed that the abundance of the North American Black-necked Grebe is likely associated with mid- Pleistocene dispersal from South America followed by late Pleistocene expansion during a time when hypersaline lake habitat accommodated large populations of staging birds. In conclusion, the demographic variation among species in the eared grebe group can be explained by recent ecological speciation of both a sympatric and an allopatric nature. Future investigation is warranted to determine whether this pattern of speciation and associated rapid phenotypic divergence can be extended to other grebe taxa.